Winter Motorcycle Repairs

TAKING AIM by Chris Maida, Editor

TAKING AIM by Chris Maida, Editor

TAKING AIM, by Chris Maida, Editor

Here in the northeast, wintertime is when you tackle big projects, or ones that take a lot of time to complete, since the weather is not exactly the best for a motorcycle ride. Things like paint jobs, chroming, powdercoating, engine builds, and major chassis modifications require many steps and outside shops to do various sections of the repair/upgrade. Delays are also due to an outside shop having a long turnaround time, like a chroming facility or paint shop. This is pretty much the standard pattern in our favorite pastime. So why am I telling you this?

Wintertime is also when you should take care of other projects, like replacing a slipping clutch or fixing a failing starter system. Unfortunately, a common problem is the guy who waits until that first nice day to call a shop to get his clutch fixed or bald rear tire changed, and he wants it done right away. Really? Those repairs were needed back when he put the bike up for the winter. Actually, the repairs were needed before then, but he was able to nurse the bike along to get the rest of the riding season in instead of losing those last few days to the shop. That part of the deal is fine; glad he was able to do it. The problem is that he didn’t get the bike fixed when the shop was slow during winter. Once the nice weather is back, he wants his bike fixed right away. Unfortunately, so do 20 other guys who also waited to get their bikes fixed.

Don’t be that guy. Go into your garage with a cup of coffee, uncover the bike, and give it a good going over. How are the tires? Good to go with lots of tread, or almost bald? What about the brake pads? Doing the tires and pads at the same time can save you some labor cost, depending on the model. Check out the primary chain and rear drive chain/belt. How was the clutch working last season? Did the bike start easily or were there starter issues? Maybe a fresh set of spark plugs is needed? How are the bike’s electrics? Does the horn and all the lights work? Yeah, it might be a bad bulb, or it might be a short or broken wire. Change the bulb now and see if that does the trick. If a short has to be tracked down, it may take the mechanic awhile to find it.

The point is that it’s now the beginning of February. If your riding season hasn’t started yet, but soon will, get those repairs done now. This way, when those nice riding days show up, especially the ones that pop up unexpectedly on a weekend, you can just fire up the bike and go for a ride. That is, unless you like watching your buddies ride by as you load your bike onto a truck.

See you on the road.
Chris Maida

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Tech Shoots and Road Time

TAKING AIM by Chris Maida, Editor

TAKING AIM by Chris Maida, Editor

TAKING AIM, by Chris Maida, Editor

I enjoy visiting various shops around the country. It gives me the opportunity to talk with many different mechanics

I’m writing this just a few days before Thanksgiving, and about 10 days late. The rest of the issue has already been shipped, working its way through the process that will eventually result in the magazine that ends up in your mailbox and on the newsstands. It’s also the first day I’m back in the office after a three-day tech shoot at Rob’s Dyno in Gardner, Massachusetts. In fact, most of the last few months I’ve been on the road shooting tech for American Iron. While it’s well known I’m the editor of American Iron, few readers know I’m also the tech editor.

Don’t get me wrong. I’m not complaining about being on the road often. I enjoy visiting various shops around the country. It gives me the opportunity to talk with many different mechanics, in both H-D dealerships and independent shops, and find out what’s going on with our beloved Harley-Davidsons, as well as Indians, Victorys, and custom builds. I don’t have a shop anymore, so this is the best way for me to get info from the trenches.

It also gives me a chance to meet some of our readers. Of course, I can’t hang out when the mechanic is ready to do the installation. With me stopping him at every step to shoot photos of what he’s doing, the time it’ll take him to do the job is doubled. And, as odd as this may sound, it’s hard on the mechanic to do a shoot with me. These guys are used to rolling through the job quickly and methodically. Having to constantly stop for me to take five to eight photos per step is, for lack of a better word, aggravating. I know because sometimes I’m the one spinning the wrenches! That’s when my daughter Chelsea is doing the photography, as she did for the 2015 Fat Boy upgrade series we finished in issue #331.

But all my travel is not only for tech. I usually go to two main bike events each year: Daytona Bike Week, which is about two months away by the time you read this, and Sturgis. Unlike when I’m traveling for tech, my main focus during these events is to cover the festivities and meet our readers. So if you ever see a short guy with a ponytail in a black American Iron shirt walking around, it’ll probably be me, so come over and say “Hey!”

See you on the road.

Chris Maida

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AIM Expo

TAKING AIM by Chris Maida, Editor

TAKING AIM by Chris Maida, Editor

TAKING AIM, by Chris Maida, Editor

Everyone has heard of Biketoberfest, which happens in Daytona during mid-October. But how many of you know about the new trade/consumer show that’s held at the same time in nearby Orlando? Now in its third year, this show is growing into a must-do event. The first two days, Thursday and Friday, are for the trade, meaning dealers and the media. However, on Saturday and Sunday the show is open to everyone. Being a fun putt from Daytona, it’s a great way to check out cool new products from many aftermarket manufacturers. Here are just a few of the new things I saw at this year’s show.

Yelvington, with a head designer/engineer who just retired from NASA, has introduced a new trike rear section that just bolts to your existing Touring model frame. There’s no welding or cutting involved since the new rear assembly replaces the stock swingarm. You keep the bike’s entire upper rear section (rear fender, saddlebags, Tour-Pak, etc.) just as it is. The new trike section places the two rear wheels just outside the saddlebags, complete with stock-looking rear fenders. Plus, this rear section has a built-in reverse feature, which is part of the new rear pulley. There’s no messing with the transmission! To operate, put the tranny into neutral, flip the switch that engages the reverse setup, shift the tranny into first gear, and simply move the bike backwards using your existing clutch lever just as you would to slowly move the bike forward. Sweet! We’re already set up to do a full install and review for you in 2016.

For the high performance crew, Yuasa now has a 500 CCA battery for selected models. That means the stock starter motor will now have plenty of power to crank over that monster motor you just spent lots of cash building. We’ll test these new batteries very soon.

Got a new Indian Big Twin and looking for more low-end grunt? The crew at Andrews has a new performance camshaft setup that promises an increase of over 10 ft-lbs. of torque in the engine’s low-rpm range. It’s just what the doctor ordered for the big bikes in the Indian lineup. You Victory owners have not been forgotten: Andrews has a new performance camshaft for you, too! There was also an array of new products from Barnett, Biker’s Choice, Dynojet, TechnoResearch, and a host of other manufacturers. Look for installs on these and other new products in future issues.

There was also an impressive display of showstopping bikes by noted custom builders. Definitely put this one on your short list of shows to see in 2016. And since it occurs at the same time as Biketoberbest, it’s an excellent way for riders like me who live in places with cold winters to close out the riding year. After all, we have all winter to install some of the cool new stuff we saw at the show!

See you on the road.

Chris Maida

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Compression Ratios III

TAKING AIM by Chris Maida, Editor

TAKING AIM by Chris Maida, Editor

TAKING AIM, by Chris Maida, Editor

Moderately boosting the compression, like going from 9:1 to 10:1 or 10.25:1, shouldn’t run you afoul of engine knock in a big way. However, a high-compression engine can be unforgiving and difficult to tune, especially a Twin Cam, if you go past 10.5:1. Even stock H-D engines have bouts with knock due to the very lean fuel/air mixture needed to meet EPA regulations. Thankfully, there are ways to prevent engine knock and an easy one is to not let the engine overheat. In case you haven’t noticed, a lean running engine will rattle and ping more often on a hot day, especially in heavy traffic. The combination of a very lean mixture and high engine operating temperatures aggravates the situation and gives engine knock an open invitation to trash your engine.

The method The Motor Company uses in its 2000 and later Softails, and 2002 and later rubber-mount models, is to mess with the ignition timing. All Delphi EFI control modules have a ping sensor, which detects whenever the Big K makes an appearance via a process called ion sensing. If the control module detects engine knock, it retards the ignition timing (moves it to a less aggressive setting) until the knocking stops. In fact, if the engine is not set up correctly for a high compression ratio, this system will retard the timing to the point of engine power loss, which, of course, defeats the purpose of having a high-compression engine in the first place. The fix for this is to have the module remapped for a high-compression engine.

Those with carburetor-equipped bikes can install a fully adjustable, single-fire ignition. This allows you to dial in the initial ignition timing and advance curve that’ll keep the combustion bogeyman away. The goal is to use the most aggressive advance curve possible, while still avoiding knock. Once correctly dialed-in, you’ll get the most power from your engine, while also protecting it from damage.

A word also needs to be said about riding style. Whacking open the throttle when the engine’s rpm is below its powerband will make even a properly tuned engine knock and ping. Down-shifting is the simple fix here.

Another way to eliminate knock is to use long-duration cams, which are camshafts with a lot of valve overlap. Valve overlap is when both the intake and exhaust valves are open briefly at the same time. This allows some of the engine’s compression to bleed off at low rpm, which is where engine knock always occurs. In fact, running the correct set of long-duration cams with a set of high-compression pistons will give you a nice gain in power. Be sure to talk with the cam manufacturer before buying to make sure you get the correct grind for your engine, bike, and riding style. Taking valve overlap too far, and ignoring other cam profile factors, can kill performance.

See you on the road

Chris Maida

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Compression Ratios I

TAKING AIM by Chris Maida, Editor

TAKING AIM by Chris Maida, Editor

TAKING AIM, by Chris Maida, Editor

Have you ever been in a pack of bikes and heard one that had an exhaust note that crackled with power when the rider blipped the throttle? That, my friend, is the sound of a high-compression engine! And though some try to imitate it with real short drag pipes or holes in their mufflers, nothing has the crisp bite of a high-compression engine, in sound or throttle response.

Boosting an engine’s compression ratio is a time-honored and effective method of increasing its performance. If done correctly, it’s a modification that will enable an engine to produce more power while also increasing its efficiency (fuel mileage). Increasing the compression ratio will also make your engine accelerate (build rpm) faster, which will make the engine more responsive when you crack the throttle. However, like everything in the world, every modification has its pluses and minuses. So before you head down to the service department with a fistful of dollars, you should understand what compression ratio is, why it produces more power, and what the possible drawbacks are.

As you’ve seen in countless tech stories and bike features, an engine’s compression ratio is usually ststed as, for example, 10:1 and read as 10 to 1, like any other ratio. What this means is that the volume of the area above the piston, which is mostly the combustion chamber, and the volume of the cylinder when the piston is at the lowest point of its stroke — called its Bottom Dead Center position (BDC) — will be reduced to one-tenth of that size when the piston is at the highest point of its stroke, or its Top Dead Center position (TDC). The notation 10:1 simply states that the air/fuel mixture will be compressed into the cylinder head’s combustion chamber until it occupies a space one-tenth as large as the volume of the cylinder and combustion chamber combined. A notation like 10.5:1 simply means the ratio is 10-1/2 to one.

As for why increasing the engine’s compression enables it to put out more power, remember when we discussed how power is produced? The piston is driven down in its cylinder by the pressure produced in the combustion chamber by the rapidly burning fuel and air mixture. How hard this pressure pushes down on the piston determines how much power the engine produces. And if the pressure that the air/fuel mixture’s under is increased before it’s ignited — meaning the engine’s compression ratio has been raised — the burning gases will exert even more pressure onto the piston, producing more power. It’s like a coiled spring in that if you compress it a little, it pushes back a little. But the more you compress it, the harder it pushes back.

We’ll cover possible drawbacks of raising an engine’s compression and other details in a future column.

See you on the road

Chris Maida

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American Iron Magazine Content

TAKING AIM, by Chris Maida, Editor

TAKING AIM by Chris Maida, Editor

TAKING AIM by Chris Maida, Editor

I’ve been getting lots of letters lately from readers concerned that since Motorcycle Bagger has been discontinued, we’re going to flood American Iron with suitcases, as one reader called them. I guess they’re reacting to Buzz’s column in Issue #323, where he stated that we were going to start adding a bit more bagger editorial and tech into AIM. Flooding AIM with baggers isn’t what Buzz meant. We plan on having a bike feature and tech article for the bagger guys in every issue. Sometimes we may also have a Reader’s Ride that’s also a bagger, like it is in this issue.  We always had baggers and bagger tech in AIM before Motorcycle Bagger, so we’re going back to that
format, but with more regularity.

While I’m at it, I should also address any reader concerns that we’re going to start filling American Iron with Victory and/or Indian articles in every issue. I say that because we have three articles with Victory content in this issue: Techline, American Motorcycle Girl, and a short review in our Daytona Bike Week coverage. That’s not the start of a trend. True, we have been putting more Indian and Victory content into AIM, but our plan is not to pull out Harley content to do that.

What we strive to do in American Iron Magazine is have something for everyone who’s interested in American motor­cycling. Our goal is to cover the full scope of what this encompasses, be it custom baggers, Softails, Dynas, V-Rods, Sportsters, or trikes, both pro and home-built. We also cover vintage bikes and tech as well as new models by Harley, Indian, Victory, and other American manufacturers, such as the new ARCH Motorcycle. Though the bulk of our coverage is Harley-oriented, Indian, Victory, and other USA-made brands have a place in AIM.

Since I’m on the subject of our magazine’s content, I might as well address other areas of reader concern. During the course of the year, I get letters from readers saying there are too many customs, too many old bikes, too much tech, etc. in the magazine. We split American Iron approximately in half regarding custom bikes and tech. We do this because there are many readers who love to check out the latest trends as well as what other builders are doing, since these readers build a bike from scratch or customize a production bike. We put in lots of tech, much more than other magazines, for our readers who have no interest in customs. They want articles on new bikes, and what they can do to improve the power, handling, whatever of their basically stock-looking bikes.

So please continue to send me letters telling me what you do and don’t like as well as any other concerns you have regarding AIM content. We take them into account as we plan our issues for the year. And thanks for being an American Iron Magazine reader!

See you on the road,

Chris Maida

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Increasing Motorcycle Engine Size

TAKING AIM, by Chris Maida, Editor

TAKING AIM by Chris Maida, Editor

TAKING AIM by Chris Maida, Editor

Want more power? Get a bigger engine. It’s as simple as that. And though increasing your engine’s displacement isn’t the only way to get more power, it’s a very effective one. Since an engine’s displacement is the result of two factors — the bore of its cylinders and the stroke of its pistons — increasing either one (or both) will make your engine larger and more powerful.

The displacement of a piston engine is the total swept volume of all the engine’s cylinders. A cylinder’s swept volume is the area that the piston travels (sweeps) over as it moves up and down its cylinder, called its stroke. The displacement (area) of a cylinder depends on its diameter (bore) and length (stroke). To compute a cylinder’s displacement, you plug these two measurements into the formula: bore x bore x 0.7854 x stroke. The number 0.7854 is a constant value that’s needed to make it all work out correctly.

Once you have the swept volume of  a cylinder, you multiply that number by the amount of cylinders the engine has, which for V-twins is two, to get the total cubic-inch (or cubic centimeter for you metric lovers) displacement of the engine. If you use the bore and stroke measurements for a TC 103, you’ll get (3.875″ x 3.875″ x 0.7854″ x 4.375″) x 2 for a total of 103.19″ (1,690 cc).

The purpose of a big-bore cylinder kit is to dramatically increase the diameter of an engine’s cylinder bores. There are two ways to do this: buy bigger bore cylinders or machine the bore of the stock cylinders larger. The stock TC 88 and TC 96, and 883 Sportster cylinders have walls about 1/4″ thick, so they can be bored out to the same diameter as some big-bore kit cylinders and still thick enough for safe engine operation.

Changing the bore of an engine to increase its displacement should not be confused with an overbore, which is done during an engine rebuild to remove imperfections in the cylinder’s walls. While an overbore does change the bore size slightly, it’s a very small amount – 0.005″ or so, depending on the amount of damage to the cylinder walls. Once you’ve changed the bore of the cylinders, even if it’s just 0.005″ over for a rebuild, you need to
install new, equally larger pistons and rings.

As for engine longevity, there are no problems associated with increasing an engine’s bore, other than the additional stress and strain that the increased power will put on all the engine and powertrain components. However, the size of the cylinder holes in the crankcases, called the cylinder spigots, limits how much you can increase the cylinder bores. That’s why builders who want very large displacement engines must also increase the engine’s stroke. And that’s what we’ll cover in another issue.

See you on the road,

Chris Maida

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How Motorcycle Engine Power Is Produced

TAKING AIM, by Chris Maida, Editor

TAKING AIM by Chris Maida, Editor

TAKING AIM by Chris Maida, Editor

Whenever you get around a group of riders, compression ratios, cubic inches, and cam lifts, as well as a multitude of other modifications, are discussed and compared, along with the resulting torque and horsepower numbers. But why does increasing an engine’s cubic inches (known as its displacement) result in more power? And why does installing the highest lift cam you can buy usually result in less power being produced?

All engine performance mods, from something as basic as bolting on a freer-flowing air cleaner to exotic systems like superchargers or nitrous oxide, are designed to do one thing: get more air/fuel mixture over the piston, so it can be ignited — hopefully when it will do the most good — and burned as efficiently as possible. Period. The heat energy released by burning gasoline and oxygen is what the piston and associated parts turn into the mechanical energy needed to turn the rear wheel. Think about it: it’s not the size of the cam’s lobes that allow an engine to develop more power, it’s how well a specific cam works with the engine’s other components to get as much air/fuel mixture into the cylinders as possible for each combustion event.

But getting the cylinders filled is not the only factor in getting the most from what you have. When the ignition system fires the spark plugs to burn the mixture and how efficiently that mixture burns also plays a big part in how much power will be produced. The spark plug should ignite the air/fuel mixture before the piston starts on its way back down the cylinder on its power stroke. This is done so the mixture has time to ignite and burn. The piston is driven down the cylinder by the pressure produced in the combustion chamber by the rapidly burning fuel and air. To get the most power, you want the piston just past the top of its compression stroke by the time the mixture has burned to the point where the now-expanding gases can push their hardest on the piston, driving it down the cylinder on its power stroke. As for having an efficient burn, the more completely you burn the air/fuel mixture, the more power you’ll get from it.

To get a very efficient burn, the fuel must be completely atomized and thoroughly mixed with air in the right proportions before it’s ignited by the spark plug. The fuel and air are initially mixed in the engine’s intake system. However, for a very efficient burn, the fuel and air should be mixed again in the combustion chamber just before it’s ignited. The combustion chamber and piston design on Evos and Twin Cams do this by turbulently mixing the air/fuel mixture as it’s compressed into the combustion chamber by the rising piston. Just for the record, you don’t want turbulence in the intake or exhaust tracts; laminar flow is the way to go in the ports.

See you on the road,

Chris Maida

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Neglected Pre-Ride Motorcycle Maintenance Part 2

TAKING AIM, by Chris Maida, Editor

TAKING AIM by Chris Maida, Editor

TAKING AIM by Chris Maida, Editor

In the last issue, I wrote about how many owners routinely neglect their bike’s tires. This time around, we’ll look at the second important area I see many owners overlooking: their brake systems. Checking the brake pads, brake lines, and rotors takes only a few minutes, since they’re out in the open. Thankfully, these components only need to be checked every 2,500 miles. However, if you ride less than 1,000 miles a year, don’t go by the bike’s mileage in regard to the brake lines, since time is the enemy here as much as mileage. Every six months should be sufficient.

To check the brake pads, look at where both pads contact the rotor. If the metal baseplate of the pad is close (under 1/16″) to touching the rotor, change the pads. Inspect the rubber section of the brake lines for cracks, the metal areas for rust. Needless to say, you don’t want to see either one. If you do, replace the lines. For the rotors, look for bluing or grooves on either side of the rotor. Slight grooves in the rotor are normal, deep grooves are not. Also make sure the bolts are tight. You don’t have to pull out a torque wrench to check the hardware, just put a tool on them and see if they move easily. If they don’t, they’re good to go.

The last brake maintenance item is a bit more involved: changing the brake fluid. This is the area I see neglected the most. Thankfully, you only swap out the brake fluid every two years if your bike uses DOT 3 or 4. That’s how long it takes DOT 3 or 4 to absorb enough moisture to become a problem. Water inside the brake system corrodes the brake lines and such from the inside and can cause a failure even though things look fine on the outside. Just for the record, you can put DOT 4 in a DOT 3 system, but don’t put DOT 3 in a DOT 4 system. Also, DOT 5 and DOT 5.1 are not the same. Don’t interchange them!

Of course, while you’re looking at the brake system, which also includes checking the brake fluid level, you can also check the axle nuts, wheels, etc., but a long checklist is, I think, the main reason most riders don’t check anything. Personally, I recommend inspecting a few different items each time you’re about to fire off the engine. This trip it’s the brake system, next time it’s the wheels and axle nuts, etc. Sure, the best way is to check everything every time you plan on going for a ride, but that’s not going to happen in most cases. If it’s all or nothing, it’s safer, in my opinion, to check a section of your bike each time you plan on going for a ride. That said, you should always check the tires before each ride!

See you on the road.

Chris Maida

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Chain Tensioner Blues

TAKING AIM by Chris Maida, Editor

TAKING AIM by Chris Maida, Editor

TAKING AIM, by Chris Maida, Editor

I’ve been getting a lot of letters from readers concerned about the cam chain tensioners in their Twin Cam engines. They want to know at what mileage the fiber shoe on the tensioners will wear out. Unfortunately, there’s no simple answer to this question, since it depends on a few factors.

For starters, tensioner shoe wear is tied to engine rpm, not mileage. An engine spinning at 2500 rpm when the bike is in second gear and going 30 mph is wearing out its tensioner shoes the same amount as when the bike is in fifth and going 60, and yet the bike is traveling twice as many miles. This means a bike ridden mostly around town will wear out its tensioner shoes at a lower mileage than a bike ridden mostly on the highway.

Another factor to consider is whether your bike has the spring-loaded tensioners or the newer hydraulic units. The spring type is original equipment in all 1999-2006 Twin Cams, except 2006 Dynas, which got the hydraulic units that year. All 2007 to present Twin Cams have the hydraulic tensioners. This is important because the spring-loaded tensioners wear out much faster than their hydraulic counterparts. The spring-loaded tensioners are always applying the same amount of pressure onto the cam chain and, therefore, the tensioner shoes.

The hydraulic tensioners apply pressure based on engine oil pressure. When the engine is idling or at low power settings, engine oil pressure is low, so the tensioners are not applying much pressure to the chains, keeping shoe wear to a minimum. This is why the spring-loaded tensioners usually wear out their shoes in 15,000-30,000 miles while the hydraulic units have been lasting anywhere from 30,000 to 70,000.

You can check the outer tensioner’s shoe by pulling off the cam cover, which brings us to the final factor to remember. The inner tensioner shoe, on both spring and hydraulic tensioners, always wears out faster than the outer one. If the outer shoe is three quarters worn, the inner one is probably gone or just about to go.

To change the inner tensioner and its shoe, you have to pull the entire cam support plate assembly out of the engine and take this assembly apart. This is why many owners take this opportunity to upgrade to the new-style hydraulic units and cam support plate. (Why go into your engine again in 20,000 miles or so?) It’s also a good idea to upgrade to the new-style oil pump at this time. Many owners also put in a set of performance cams that don’t require any headwork at this time, since the only additional cost is the cams themselves, a fuel tuner, and the tuning time, but that’s a whole different issue.

See you on the road.

Chris

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This column originally appeared in issue #314 of American Iron Magazine.

(Interested in tackling this project? Our friends at Fix My Hog have a video that lays it all out for you. Click here to check it out.)

 

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